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Novel method for kidney transplant – a game changer

Novel method for kidney transplant - a game changer

A novel method for kidney transplant – a game changer. It is important to point out that all vertebrates have a pair of kidneys, which are bean-shaped organs. The kidneys maintain blood pressure, electrolyte balance, and waste removal. The kidneys are among the body’s most critical organs.

Highlights:

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  • Overview of the kidney as an organ
  • Kidney diseases
  • Convention method of kidney transplantation
  • Novel method for kidney transplant
  • Study showing the efficacy of the novel method for kidney transplant

Your kidneys are responsible for removing waste from your blood. The kidney receives blood, filters out waste and adjusts the body’s balance of salt, water and minerals as needed. Blood that has been filtered is returned to the body. In the kidney’s pelvis (a funnel-shaped structure), waste is converted to urine. This is then excreted into the bladder through the ureter.

On the other hand, scientists and doctors are worried about the number of kidney diseases that are getting worse.

Kidney disease is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to perform their vital function of filtering blood. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, you are more likely to develop renal disease. If you have kidney failure, dialysis or a kidney transplant are options.

Deficiencies in the kidneys’ capacity to filter waste from the blood can lead to chronic kidney disease. This affects the organs’ ability to function normally. Waste can pile up in your blood and make you unwell if renal disease progresses. High blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage are all possible problems.

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A novel method for kidney transplant – a game changer

Heart and blood vessel problems are also more common in those with kidney illness. These issues may take a long time to develop. Chronic kidney disease can be prevented if it is diagnosed and treated early enough.

Long-term kidney disease can cause kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Transplantation of a kidney using the standard procedure

End-stage renal illness necessitates kidney transplantation, which is also known as a renal transplant or a kidney transplant. A kidney transplant can be characterized as either a deceased-donor transplant or a living-donor transplant. That is, depending on where the organ comes from.

In order to address renal failure, surgeons perform a kidney transplant. The kidneys are in charge of taking waste out of the blood and getting rid of it through urine.

In addition, they aid in the maintenance of your body’s fluid and electrolyte balance. As a result of a malfunctioning kidney, waste builds up in the body, which can lead to serious health problems.

Dialysis is a common therapeutic option for those whose kidneys have failed. When the kidneys cease functioning, waste accumulates in the circulation, and this therapy uses mechanical filtering to remove it.

A kidney transplant may be an option for those whose organs have failed. One or both kidneys can be transplanted from a donor in this process. This can be a living or deceased individual.

Dialysis and kidney transplants both have their own set of advantages and disadvantages.

Dialysis is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Also, dialysis therapy frequently necessitates many visits to a dialysis clinic. A dialysis machine is used to purify your blood at the dialysis center.

If you’re a candidate for home dialysis, you’ll need to buy dialysis supplies and learn how to utilize them.

If you receive a kidney donation, it is possible to avoid a lifetime of dialysis and the rigid routine that accompanies it. You’ll be able to be more active as a result of this. However, not everyone is a good candidate for a kidney transplant. Included in this is everyone with a current illness, as well as anyone who is extremely obese.

Your surgeon will insert a donor kidney into your body during a kidney transplant. Even if you’re born with two kidneys, you may still have a normal life with just one working one. Immunosuppressive drugs must be used after the transplant in order to protect your body from rejecting the new organ.

A new kidney transplant procedure has been identified.

According to a groundbreaking new study, three California youngsters who have received kidney transplants will likely never have to take anti-rejection medicine again because of an innovative approach that eliminates the need for lifelong immunosuppression.

On Wednesday, researchers at Stanford Medicine published a case report in the New England Journal of Medicine detailing their findings. Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia, or SIOD, is an exceedingly uncommon hereditary illness that can lead to kidney failure and a person’s inability to fight infection. In each case, both parents gave stem cells from bone marrow and a kidney.

The children’s renal and immune systems are functioning normally three years after the transplants. When a stem cell transplant is combined with a solid organ transplant, it is known as a “dual immune/solid organ transplant.” Stanford’s methodology isn’t brand new, but the school’s success with it is.

There are just a few dozen cases of SIOD globally, but experts in the field of kidney transplantation are optimistic about the results witnessed in these young people.

Amit Tevar, the surgical director of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center’s Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Program, says that “there is no organ transplant, whether it’s kidney, liver, pancreas, lung or heart, that does not have the same long-term complications from the body’s very effective immune system.”

Tevar added that it has always been a challenge to persuade the body to accept a transplanted organ. An organ donor’s immune system doesn’t see the organ as a threat and doesn’t assault it, which is “the Holy Grail of transplantation.”

Americans in need of a new kidney

According to Tevar, who was not involved in the research, “This is groundbreaking.” If kidney transplantation technology improves, it might have a significant influence. According to the United Network for Organ Sharing, about 90,000 Americans are in need of a new kidney.

According to Johns Hopkins Kidney Transplant Program Medical Director Dr. Hamid Rabb, the study is “interesting.”

If there were methods that would not necessitate the use of powerful drugs with undesirable side effects, getting a kidney transplant would be fantastic. “This paves the way for fresh ideas.”

As a bonus, it may obviate the need for subsequent organ transplants in patients. After a decade or two of use, the immune system rejects donated organs, making them no longer useful. This means they have to be replaced.

A research author and associate professor of pediatrics at Stanford said that “these kidneys are going to survive forever” because of the immunotolerance obtained in these patients.

When it comes to medical advancement, organ transplantation has transformed the world of medicine, but it has come with a major and sometimes lethal risk of organ rejection.

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When an organ is given, recipients are often obliged to take immunosuppressive medicines for the duration of their use of the organ. These drugs can make high blood pressure, cancer, and infections that are bad enough to need hospitalization worse.

Families of children who have undergone organ transplants must be informed of the dangers of infection and sickness, according to Dr. Eliza Blanchette, a pediatric nephrologist at Children’s Hospital Colorado, who spoke at a press conference. A lot of them have to deal with such problems all the time.

Graft-versus-host disease, which happens when the new cells fight the body of the person who got them, is another risk.

SIOD

When Jessica and Kyle Davenport of Muscle Shoals decided to send their two children to Stanford for treatment in 2019, they were prepared to incur the chance that their children might be born with SIOD.

When Kruz, 9, and his younger sister Paizlee, 7, join the ranks of SIOD documented siblings, they will be just the second set in the world. According to Jessica Davenport, the condition is a kind of dwarfism that affects a wide range of bodily functions. An inability to develop normally, renal failure, and a lack of T cells, which aid in the body’s capacity to fight off infection, are the most common symptoms..

Their journey to California for both stem cell and kidney transplants began in 2019 when they flew out of Alabama to make the lengthy trip. Kristin and Kyle Davenport each gave one of their children bone marrow and one of their children a kidney in order to save their lives.

It took the four of them almost a year in the hospital, thanks to the donations of bone marrow and kidneys. Before the organ transplants, the kids have to go through painful rounds of chemotherapy and radiation, and both parents have to go through long, risky surgeries.

As Davenport remarked, “When you’re in it, you’ve got your game face on.” I can’t believe I actually did that when I look back on it.

A third youngster has not been recognized in the report. In the past, her need for dialysis had a negative effect on her quality of life.

“This patient has come back to life,” she said nearly two years after the surgery.

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Cutting back on immunosuppressive medication

SIOD has already been treated with a combined immune and solid organ transplant in five other children. But four people died, either from graft-versus-host disease or from the high toxicity of the drugs needed to suppress the immune system before transplantation, as was the case in this case.

Before the stem cell transplant, the young patients at Stanford went through a similar regimen of chemotherapy, radiation, and other immune-suppressing drugs to prepare their bodies for the new cells.

The Stanford doctors, on the other hand, made particular modifications to this treatment plan in order to reduce its toxicity for these young patients. Before giving the stem cells to the patients, they were changed so that they couldn’t cause graft-vs-host disease.

The technique has a few restrictions. The transplanted kidneys and immune systems of the children are doing well for the time being, but they are not a panacea for the disease of SIOD. Kruz and Paizlee are at risk for more than just painful migraines. They could also have a stroke or other heart problems.

The replacement kidneys may or may not survive a lifetime.

As Rabb said, “the body is still creating substances that destroy that kidney” in many different forms of renal disease. In spite of the absence of immunosuppression, the initial condition may reappear. “

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If scientists can get the procedure to work for individuals who have fully functioning T cells, and so have a more powerful immune system to overcome, future breakthroughs based on these instances are probable.

However, Tevar of UPMC stated that the latest study “gives us a lot of suggestions as to how this may be achieved through future studies in patients that do have normal T cell systems.”

Bertaina and her team are now using this method to study children with renal failure, including those whose bodies have rejected donated kidneys in the past.

People who have had organ transplants in the past might be able to reset their immune systems with this method one day, reducing or getting rid of the need to take immunosuppressive drugs for the rest of their lives.

Due to the fact that they have fully functional kidneys and immune systems, they are now able to take advantage of experiences that were previously out of their reach.

According to Davenport’s statement: “They get to attend birthday celebrations, Thanksgiving and Christmas dinners with our family.” “It fills my heart with delight to watch them grow up and become children.”

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